The center of the vast majority of Liafal's research into arcane magic, the cold, mountainous country of Caelum imposes an extreme stance of neutrality upon its interactions with other countries. Though Caelum has been largely governed by a cabal of wizards known as the Council of Nine Pillars since its inception as a country, its true ruler is widely known to be a mysterious individual (or, perhaps, individuals) known as the Archmage.
Urban Caelum is very much a magocracy - those in power tend to be powerful wizards with designs on one day achieving a seat on the Council for themselves or their own family, and Caelan citizens are strongly urged into its wizardry cirriculum, no matter their age. Despite this, Caelum also boasts one of the most prestigious non-magical education cirriculums on the planet, as well, second only to that of Riven. In part, this is due to the influence of Pillar Quintus Flamen, who has expanded and refined it significantly to improve the lives of those in the country who don't have the knack or the desire to learn the arcane arts.
Rural Caelum, however, is a different story entirely. Communities who stick to the mountains rather than the cities are completely separate legally from those in Caelum's biggest population centers, and in some extreme cases not viewed as Caelan citizens at all. Those in outside communities desiring to enter into Caelum's cities and education system proper must undergo a rigorous immigration process, the same process required for those immigrating from other countries.